Track bed structure
The upper structure of the track (VSP) is designed to take loads from the wheels of the rolling stock and transfer them to the lower track structure, as well as to direct the movement of the wheels along the rail track. VSP is an indispensable element of any railway track and represents a single integrated structure consisting of rails, fastenings with anti-theft, rail supports (most often in the form of sleepers), ballast, bridge cloth, turnouts and a number of special devices.
The purpose of the rails is to create surfaces with the least resistance for the movement of the wheels of the rolling stock, to directly perceive and resiliently transfer the force from the wheels to the supports (sleepers, bars) and to direct the wheels of the rolling stock in motion. On sections with automatic blocking, the rail threads serve as signal current conductors, and in sections with electric traction - reverse traction current.
Railway rails (Р50, Р65, Р75) - are intended for the link and unbroken track of wide gauge railways and for the production of turnouts. The type of railway rails is denoted by the letter Pand the number rounded to the mass of 1 m of the rail. For example, a rail, 1 m of which has a mass of 64.72 kg, is designated P65. More >>>
Starving rails are rails that are operated on the way and taken from it for all types of repairs, continuous or single replacement and current maintenance, intended for laying on the network of railways in Kazakhstan.
(From the ghost spalk - support), supports for rails in the form of bars, laid on the ballast layer of the upper structure of the track. Sleepers ensure the invariability of the mutual location of the rail threads, take pressure from the rails and transfer it to the ballast layer. In Russia sleepers are made of reinforced concrete (length 270 cm) or wood impregnated with antiseptics (275, 280 and 300 cm). At 1 km of the railway track, 1,600, 1840 or 2,000 sleepers are laid (the laying diagram).
The most common type of rail supports on the railways of the world are wooden sleepers. They are made of pine, spruce, fir, larch, cedar and birch. Wooden sleepers must comply with GOST 78-89 "Wooden sleepers for railways of gauge 1520 mm". Depending on the purpose, wooden sleepers are manufactured in three types:
I - for the main paths of the 1st and 2nd grades, as well as for the 3rd class roads with a freight strength of more than 50 tonnes km / km per year or train speeds of more than 100 km / h.
II - for the main routes of the 3rd and 4th grades, access roads with intensive work, reception and sorting ways at the stations.
III - for paths of the 5th class (for inactive access roads of industrial enterprises).
According to the shape of the cross-section, wooden sleepers are divided into three types: edged, half-edged, unedged.
Reinforced concrete sleepers
Modern reinforced concrete sleepers - all-reinforced concrete of prestressed reinforced concrete reinforced with high-strength wire, must comply with the requirements of GOST 10629-88 (introduced from 01.01.1990) and TU 5864-019-11337151-95 (introduced by the Ministry of Railways of the Russian Federation from 01.01.1995) . Serially produced by the industry sleepers type Ш-1-1 for separate terminal-bolt fastening KB. On low-activity lines, the real life of ferroconcrete sleepers is 50 years or more. The system of re-laying old-aged used concrete sleepers removed from the paths of the 1st and 2nd classes during major overhaul, on the way of the 3rd and 4th grades and access roads of industrial enterprises is of great economic importance.
Strength of rail connection with reinforced concrete sleepers, as well as rail joints - one of the main guarantees of accident-free railway transport.
Locking bolts hold metal lining in reinforced concrete sleepers.
Fish bolts fasten rail joints through two-headed linings.
The terminal bolts secure the rail to the lining by means of an intermediate terminal.
For rail track bolts, the appropriate track nuts are used.
Fasteners for the upper fastening of the railway track meet the technical requirements of GOST 16016-79, GOST 16017-79, GOST 16018-79, GOST 809-71, 11532-93. Double washer washers meet technical requirements TU 1855-085-01124328-99. The intermediate PC terminal corresponds to OST 32.156-2000.
Track crutches and screws
The strength of the rail connection with the wooden sleepers is one of the main guarantees of the accident-free railway transportation. Travel crutches and screws are used to attach the rails to wooden sleepers or spruce boards.
They are used in the construction of the railway track and are part of the crutch and separately intermediate fastening of all types of rails P-24, P-33, P-43, P-50, P-65.
Lining types D-43, D-50, D-65, DN-65 are included in the set of crutch attachment on wooden sleepers with a slope of tracks.
Linings DN6-65 are used in the construction of the railway track on wooden sleepers, where no incline of the rail threads is required.
The liners of types SD-50, SD-65 are used in the construction of a crutch fastening of the railway track on wooden sleepers, where the tilt of the rail threads is not required.
The liners of types KB-50, KB-65 are included in the set of separate intermediate fastening unit on reinforced concrete sleepers.
Linings KD-50, KD-65 are included in the set of separate intermediate screw fastening on wooden sleepers with a slope of rail threads.
Two-headed fishplates are used in the construction of the railway track and are part of the butt joint and spring fastening of all types of rails P-24, P-33, R-43, P-50, P-65.
The anti-theft spring is used in the construction of the railway track and is part of the intermediate crutch fastening of R-50, R-65 rails. An anti-theft prevents the longitudinal movement (stealing) of rails from the action of wheels of rolling stock on them.
Used in railroad tracks, used as shock absorbers under the foot of rails or under metal pads, also used for electrical insulation on wooden and reinforced concrete sleepers.
Rubber plates CP-328, CP-362, OP-366 are used as dampers for metal pads.
Rubber plates OP-316, CPU-143, CPU-356, CPU-318 are used for depreciation under the rail sole.
Insulating bolster KB (CP-142) is used to electrically insulate mortise bolts from the rail fasteners type KB-65 and KB-50.
Butt insulation (end type and APATeK type) is used for electrical insulation of joints of railway link and unattached tracks with rails of types Р-50, Р-65.